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Welcome to /diy/, a place to:

Post and discuss /diy/ projects, ask questions regarding /diy/ topics and exchange ideas and techniques.

Please keep in mind:
- This is a SFW board. No fleshlights or other sex toys.
- No weapons. That goes to /k/ - Weapons. The workmanship and techniques involved in creating objects which could be used as weapons or the portion of a weapons project that involves them (e.g., forging steel for a blade, machining for gunsmithing, what epoxy can I use to fix my bow) may be discussed in /diy/, but discussing weapon-specific techniques/designs or the actual use of weapons is disallowed. Things such as fixed blade knives or axes are considered tools, things such as swords, guns or explosives are considered weapons.
- No drugs or drug paraphernalia (See Global Rule 1). If you want to discuss something that could involve such things (e.g., carving a tobacco pipe from wood) that's fine, but make sure it's /diy/ related and doesn't involve drugs or it will result in deletion/ban.

Helpful links:
Some friendly suggestions for posting:
- First ask Google, then ask /diy/. Your question will probably be better received if you do so.
- List available resources (tools, materials, budget, time, etc.)
- Try to use pictures and explain the goal, if possible
- Be patient, this is a slow board; your thread will be around for days.
- Share your results! /diy/ loves to see problems solved and projects completed!

You're in a bar when suddenly this guy walks by and slaps your girlfriend's MICROJIG, MAKER OF THE GRR-RIPPER! WORK SAFER WORK SMARTER!
Th-thanks y-you too
Steve pls dont cover my sticker

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>I'm new to electronics, where do I get started?
There are several good books and YouTube channels that are commonly recommended for beginners and those wanting to learn more, many with advanced techniques. The best way to get involved in electronics is just to make stuff. Don't be afraid to get your hands dirty.

>What books are there?

Getting Started in Electronics Forrest Mims III
Make: Electronics Charles Platt
How to Diagnose and Fix Everything Electronic Michael Jay Greier

All New Electronics Self-Teaching Guide: Kybett, Boysen
Practical Electronics for Inventors: Paul Scherz and Simon Monk

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>series batteries
You don't have to bother with balancing if the cells are in parallel, but in exchange you'll lose more power stepping the voltage up.
>You don't have to bother with balancing if the cells are in parallel
No, you do. If there is a significant voltage difference between cells in parallel, you can get a massive current surge between them when they equalise.
Is it normal for old-ish diodes (4003, 4005) to be brittle?

I just tried to pry one off a board with a screwdriver and it broke. I feel like modern diodes can take way more abuse than that.
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I made a chronograph a while ago, using an IR emiter/detector pair. It measures reflective objects such as brass jacketed bullets up to 2400 fps (confirmed, designed ideally for 3k fps, but haven't tested), but it's a bit touchy. To get it to work, you first have to adjust some trimmers to compensate for the ambient light in the area. A comparator evaluates the raw phototransistor output against a version passed through a low pass filter to look for objects causing a sudden increase in reflected IR light.

I'd like to revisit this and come up with something better to help either
A. Remove the need for manual trimmer calibration to ambient light
B. Improve reliability and be able to monitor nonreflective objects such as lead bullets

Anyone have any thoughts on the subject?
>prying components
ever heard of a soldering iron?

There's a room in my house that I've been wanting to transform into a nice place to dance and practice sports and stuff, but there are two concrete pillars that are looking old, and they're square.

**I would like to know if there are any good ways to make them round? I tried searching around but I couldn't find anything.**

It could be stuff from covering the pillar with some other material to make it round to actually covering it in some sort of plaster to proceed with sanding and whatever to achieve my cilinder dreams. Or whatever, I don't know shit and that's why I'm asking.

I also have intentions of painting some drawings and writings on it, if this info is relevant at all.

Please, help?
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>I've been wanting to transform into a nice place to dance
Son I am disappoint
Came here to post this but no idea wtf a sonotube is or care.

Concrete form tubes and paint also work.
Or could spurge on pipe and a welder
you wanting decorative, or, you want active?
if i were using it mostly for dance/sports stuff, thinner it remains, the better - Id just chuck some padding round it, boxing ring post style, and good is.

You want to decorate it and contemplate, proceed as above (form/sonotube/whatever) - Id definitely also fill, tho - then go faux greek column and Trompe-l'œil n shit - pinterest is probably full of this nonsense - as said, depends on how much space you have available, making them round will make them bigger.
>measure the length of the diagonal
>Get a PVC pipe a little bigger than that
>cut pipe in half
>git around post, screw in place
>paint or whatever

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thread for all things brewing/alcohol

last one, with some great info: >>1151847

>toilet wine instructions
>get bottle of juice
>put in packet of bread yeast
>stick balloon or condom on top
>poke a small hole in it
>put someplace safe
>try to get drunk by drinking tons of badly made wine
>vomit before you're even close to drunk
>realize you should read the past threads and try to class it up a little

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At pet stores, they sell a liquid that treats chlorinated water so it's safe for various animals, mostly fish, but hermit crabs and such as well.
>pro brewer here
How do i get a job in a craft brewery?
If you haven't already, could you please answer >>1167864 ?
Planning on making a pear cider and a pinapple cider.

Any good advice regarding either one?
>any style in particular?
Any and all. I wanna brew them.

no QTDDTOT? starting one with my own question.
noob here. anything I can do to make this cable straight again? why the f does that even happen? (siemens vacuum cleaner, old)
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Repostan from /g/:

I'm dabbling in electronics for the first time in my life. and I'm currently making a preamp according to this schematic.
My input is coming from a guitar clip-on pickup (fcp-21 if you bother to look it up) and by the looks of its jack has only the tip and the sleeve, so I'm guessing I should disregard the - part of the inupt and only connect the jack on the + part of the input, right? Also, it looks to me like output is going to be mono, or positive only, so when I connect the output to a jack, should I connect it only to the tip, even if the jack has both the tip and the ring?
Yes, I've researched jacks a bit before asking. I even plucked apart one of tho 6.9mm ones to see what's inside. I'm asking if the output is going to be positive only, so that I should connect it to the plus, or the tip of the jack.
You have some fundamental misconceptions.
You can't have a circuit with only one connection.
>You have some fundamental misconceptions.
It was inevitable
>You can't have a circuit with only one conenction
Where did I make that mistake? By thinking only positive charge will exit the schematic, or when I assumed that since the guitar clip produces only a plus charge that I shouldn't attach anything to the - part of the input?

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Hey /diy/, wondering if you can help me with a battery charging setup. I’ve got a project that requires a fairly high amount of current and has to run on batteries, so I want to connect (4) 18650 batteries in series to get what I need. I should also mention that these batteries will be buried in the packaging and are not intended to be removed. I’ve read a bit about charging Li-ion batteries in series vs parallel, and it looks like parallel is pretty much always the better option. I’m thinking of going one step further and charging each of them individually.

I see a bunch of single cell Li-ion charging boards out there for super cheap, such as https://www.ebay.com/p/?iid=142004893160&lpid=82&&&ul_noapp=true&chn=ps

What I’m thinking is, use four of these charging boards, one for each cell, and have a set of DPDT relays to isolate each cell for charging, then switch them back in to a series configuration when the charger is disconnected. Does this seem reasonable? Is there something simple that I can do to try and balance the cells so that they each have the same voltage? I’m pretty sure none of the cheap ass charging boards are going to include such a function, but if I can include it myself I will. I normally wouldn’t have a problem with including a microcontroller to monitor and balance the cells, but this particular project needs to be as simple as possible with the smallest possible part count. The only thing I could think of to do with passive components is get a bunch of comparators and connect them to the cells, then use additional relays or MOSFETs to short a cell to itself if the voltage is larger than its neighbor. I’m not seeing an easy way to include hysteresis on that though, so neighboring cells may just discharge themselves down to zero because they keep reading higher than their neighbor cells, discharging a little, then the neighbor cell is higher so it discharges itself too.
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Thanks. The price is definitely right, but I worry about sending one of these with each of the demos and then writing *very simplified* instructions on how to charge the batteries. Again, these are going to primarily buisness men who probably have trouble charging their own cell phones. I could probably replicate the logic in one of these chargers and put it on an arduino nano buried in there with the batteries, but I was hoping to not have to include a microcontroller.

What are the risks if I don't have a battery management system on these batteries? Are they actually going to blow up? They will have to dump a significant amount of current at one time (on the order of a couple of amps) but will only be on for 20 seconds at a time and will have a rest period in between on cycles. I'm not too worried about when they are plugged in and charging because they will only be charging with 500mA, and the charger will stop when the battery is full. I guess I'm really just worried about some idiot holding down a button for 5 minutes and a battery heats up enough to explode. If I can make a totally passive circuit with a few thermistors that will disable the pushbuttons when the batteries are too hot, that should be enough.

How do they do it with e cigarettes?
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OK, Look for a 4S battery management module.

There are ways of doing it much simpler than all those relays.

Most tool batteries are five high current 18650 cells in series. Not to mention that laptops see five of these strapped in.

Is your goal to design a bms? If not think about the 18vs
Thanks again. So I'm sitting here looking at what you linked to, and it looks like that is a way to protect each cell while it is in the pack, which is definitely something I need. However, all of the diagrams that I see for these show how to connect each cell, and shows two wires that are used as + and - for both charge and discharge. So my next question is how to charge the cells with just two wires. I'm pretty sure that I shouldn't just connect 16 volts to the input and hope that it is split appropriately between cells. Some of these BMS' even explicitly say 'not a charging board'

Does anyone have experience designing something that uses both a battery management system and a separate li-ion charging circuit? It seems like the way they do it for drills and such is to have the BMS in the battery pack, and the charger and *custom* plug in a separate unit. What I'm looking for is more like a cell phone where the BMS and charger circuit are both in the device, and the plug is a standard micro usb.

I'm kind of thinking just include the BMS for the 4s cell configuration and also use the circuit that I already proposed for charging. I can just modify it so that the relays switch between the charging circuits and the bms.

I saw a guide on adafruit about charging multiple li-ion batteries, and they basically came to the same conclusions as me. The only difference was that they used a 3P2T switch instead of a relay configuration. For the relays I have in mind though, I can probably fit 4 of them in the same amount of space as 1 additional cell, so they are doable size wise.

The thing that I like about using a couple of relays is that if a charger is plugged in, the output of the batteries is automatically disabled and there are no additional switches needed. I've designed stuff for customers before and you might be shocked by how much they can break your circuit if they have access to things like buttons and switches.
Beleive me, I would love to have 18 volts. The thing with this project is that I need as much power as I can possibly get, but I also need to design it so that it doesn't look like a giant power brick. Ultimately, the application here is resistive heating, so this hand held battery pack is going to be dumping power in to a low resistance load; in some cases, significantly less than an ohm. I've noticed better heating results with a higher resistance though, say 4 or 5 ohms. Problem is, in order to get the same current through a larger resistance, I need a higher voltage.

The size and configuration of the demo that I have now works well with 18v (2 9-v batteries in series) so I would really like to get to 18 v with this charger. I'm custom modeling the bezel for this (think joystick minus the base) so if there is any reasonable way to fit 5 cells in, I will. On the other hand, if I have to, I will end up using 2 cells and a DC-DC converter to get somewhere between 12 and 18 volts, just to make it more appealing to the customer. For now, I'm thinking 3-4 cells and a DC-DC converter is the best compromise.

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I don't see how anyone could be jelly of cancer dick


Not him but the degree of concern you have in his existence would either suggest that you aren't in a high of a position as you'd like to put on


You have a small dick.

Or he genuinely cares, and should be lauded or at the least appreciated for his concern, as it's a rare virtue in this age of apathy.
i managed one project that had a fatality, and it was due to the attitude of a guy just like the one i was responding to. an irrational fear/hatred of authority and a sense of knowing better than those who are trained in the matter.

although that guy got fired, he wasn't the one that had to go in front of another man's family and explain why dad was sitting in the hospital morgue with all of his internal organs crushed.

men like him are cancer on the trade industry and deserve nothing but contempt.

sounds sick, got pics?

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>have a shed
>flimsy, not tall enough, kind of small
I built it myself a while ago
>want bigger shed
>decide to do things right this time
>decide to build one from scratch
>realize I need a concrete slab
>never done that before

the ground is flat, no earthquakes, house built 40 years ago has no cracks anywhere (solid ground, no settling), no HOA, no nosy neighbors, I plan to live here till I die (fuck building code)

except some youtube videos about pouring concrete, is there anything else I should know?
is premix concrete good enough?
should I use rebar (or some sort of metal mesh)?
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OP here
this sounds good and easier than everything else
It doesn't solve the problem of leveling the surface

Honestly I'm afraid to even start digging. The ground is full of roots and rocks. When I installed the shed I have right now, I had to dig what looked like the corner of a cube which was 3ft long, 4 inches deep (in the corner) and 12 inches wide (also in the corner). It took me like an hour.
Also, in the same ground I planted some trees. I rented an 2 people auger and 2 hours later I was able to dig 4 holes. The deepest was about 20 inches. The least deep was 10. And I just couldn't go any deeper.

It's reassuring to know your house's foundation will last forever but it's frustrating to know it's hard to make any improvements/changes. Even some guys that came to extend my driveway gave up after like two hours of wrestling with a huge (around 5x5x3) boulder. And they had a bobcat front loader.

that's a good idea, I'll probably start with a few small boxes and one bag of cement. I'll build some small bricks that in the worst case scenario, I'll just throw away.

Two more questions:

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Do what he suggested and build a concrete form and just pour it. Or learn how to dig properly with a mattock.
I broke one of those in one of the rocks
Yes, the metal was weak but still!
The soil there is very weird, sandy with lots of REALLY HARD rocks. And when it rains, even where there's no vegetation, it's not washed away
There are some steep inclines with no vegetation (except tree roots) that haven't moved at all in 20 years (according to my neighbors).
Basically a huge blessing for someone that doesn't want to do anything and a curse for diy-ers
Lastly, if I start digging and something goes wrong (like I find a huge rock) and I have to put everything back, because the soil is not the best, to put it lightly, it's a bitch to grow grass again

But, like I said, I'll start small and see how it goes
Answering Question 1:
That is how you properly finish a slab. Each step takes experience to do right. Even pulling a screed. If you notice in the video, he leans the screed away from him. If he didn't, it would dig in and create depressions. You might notice he occasionally slaps the concrete with the screed. He has noticed a void that needs a little help to fill in and bring some cream up. He knows what he's looking at, and does this without thinking about it.
Then the guy with the Darby float, cutting and filling. Then the edger, (pretty easy, really), then the tough part: The finish. Using a mag (magnesium float) and steel trowel takes a lot of practice. And they are absolutely necessary. Done incorrectly, and your floor will spawl, crack, flake off, etc. You will not learn how from a video, especially troweling. A lot of it is feel, as the trowel is sliding back and forth.
Then the jointer. I forget what the video called it, but it's the thing that makes a groove in the slab. This is called a control joint, and this is where you want your slab to crack, not in a ragged diagonal across the floor. That's why sidewalks have them.

Question 2:
Yes, you can use an existing concrete structure as one side. Use something called "expansion joint" (your local big box carries it) to separate the new from old.

Never mind the guys who suggest just building a form and pouring. Without a proper base, your nice, expensive, dearly bought with hard labor, will crack to pieces. A tree root will easily crack and lift a poorly constructed slab. as will frost, while settling ground will cause your slab to, well, settle as well, along with wide cracks. A proper base is also absolutely necessary.

The big problem with an inexperienced DIYer is that while all this placing, screeding, floating, troweling, edging, jointing is going on, the clock is ticking. When the concrete starts to set, you had better be done, or you have just wasted a tremendous amount of money.
re: "extending" the foundation of the house.

There may or may not be annoying building code problems with this plan. Clearance around permanent structures/fire code/property line right-of-way junk. I doubt you are pulling a permit (may or may not need to) at this point so it would be a problem that is pushed off the the future.

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Whats up, /diy/

I'm in process of building a small, one man submarine. I have everything worked out except what i will use as a seal for the hatch. Do you think a large bead of gasket maker will work? I was also thinking about encasing a ring of metal in the gasket to give it rigitity. Any advise?

Btw, fuck you for saying i'll die. If i listened to that shit, I wouldn't do anything cool. Pic related; my dive helmet diy told me not to make cause "xd u'll die"
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Be careful amd get pressure regulator. Consider light weight composite fire and rescue shit. I got 4 rescue air tabks free because they were out dated and the fire chief is a bro. He nor.ally tosses shit like thst and i funnel a case of water or 10 bucks to the slush fund for shit like this normally.
Co2 self inflating rafts?
The "deep spot" in a local lake is 15 feet. I lost a $100 trying to swim accross it. Got tired half way back and went to tred water and catch my breath. Fucking stood uo and walked back....
I watched a documentery on cuban coke smuglers building subs feom fibergkass amd trash to cart shit up river. Its fucking hilarious
U cant because 4chan is cucked and fucking stupid. It just happens sometimes. You coukd pre rotate it if it happens a lot but i get like 1 in 10 so then 90% woukd be fucked

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thninling about buying a camper like the one pictured. called an "Aliner". it needs a new floor - aparently the water tank leaked and rotted out the floor (see next pic). I'm good at fixing thing, have ton of tools etc. wondering how hard to replace a floor in one of these campers. I wouldn't use the chipboard that they used when new. probably some 3/4" marine ply? then do a nice wood look laminated flooring over that. guessing I'll have to take out the cabinets and everything too. I'll take out and leave out the water tank - don't need that.
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Sounds like you know more about it than we do.
What are you waiting on op get to it and post results.
OP here, I don't own it - I just saw it listed for sale a few towns away. normally these type campers are expensive but this one because of the water damaged floor is pretty cheap. just looking for anyone who may have had experience with camper restoration specifically replacing an entire floor. still on the fence if this is going to be 'worth it' or just keep looking for a different camper that doesn't need as much work. if I do buy it I will post progress and results etc.
>water damage

Don't do it. You've got to fix the leak, and the floor is the damage you *can* see. There's going to be damage you *can't* see. Don't even bother.
This. It looks really moist. I would expect some rust. Also the black spots look like mold, and that just stinks you would have to remove everything to get the smell out not only the floor.
yeah, I've been thinking about that too. the ad 'claims' the leak 'might' be from the on-board water storage tank (which I would pull out and not re-install anyway) but-- but-- don't know that is/was the real source of the leak. if the roof or seams somewhere are leaking that is a major PItA to track down and fix. and yeah I saw that black on the chipboard (in the pic) and though mold. sure that mold will be ripped out 1st thing but I wonder about if it got into the fabrics and cushions. bleach will only get you so far...
the longer I think about it the more I think I should just pass. keep looking for another camper that is at least bone dry but just needs cosmetic updates. that I could do no problem.

Trying to think of what I can use to make a hard shell to fit over my thumb(s) for use in greenhouse work. They get pretty sore after hours of using them to snap off tough stems.

I usually wear gloves, so I don't think it would need to be adhesive.

So far I've thought about plasti-dip, or some moldable plastic (though I'm not sure how thin that could get).
You really need to use a tool for doing that. I've worked at massive greenhouses before. There wasn't a single job I did where I had to touch the plants directly to perform the task. I always used a tools of some kind. If I didn't I've had nothing but bloody and green hands. Even something as simple as a boxend wrench can be a live saver for thumbs.

What is the plant and what part of the stem are you snapping off?

As for your question, looking into vacuum forming plastic. A really small mold, a vacuum cleaner, and a heat gun are all you need to form plastic in the size you need. You can make your shell then line the inside with a thin layer of 100% silicone for gripping.
thanks, I probably wouldn't have thought of that

they're various flowers (many geraniums), a lot of the job is cleaning and getting them ready for shipping, ie. taking off whole flowers/buds

afaik, if you use a knife or scissors you would have to sterilize them after each plant to prevent possible contamination/spreading disease, which would be not practical

>vacuum forming
I'd really like to have a setup for that at some point

any speficic type of plastic? hdpe?
>afaik, if you use a knife or scissors you would have to sterilize them after each plant to prevent possible contamination/spreading dise

How is that any different then using your thumb ?

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What are good diy basketball hoops? Any particular materials to use for the rim, backboard, pole, and net?
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Top fuckin kek
Is it really that hard to at least try and answer my question?
at first I thought it's a magnifying glass…
I don't know. Is it easy to attempt to not answer the totality of your question?
any rigid metal will do, also your pic already shows you how it is done

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ITT post anything related to arduino

Anything goes

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noted. ty.
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Not really. I mean, the project was basically only box-building, lasercutting some parts from acrylic and MDF, painting the box and then wiring everything together and making the code. Since I had access to good tools, the only difficult part was painting and that's because it's something I don't have a lot of experience doing.

The rotary encoders and the buttons play really nicely with arduino, and there're loads and loads of tutorials for every aspect of the project, be it the wiring or how to make the arduino work as a kb+mouse.

Here's a picture taken with a potato that shows the innards of one of the controllers, it's basically just 4 wires to the encoder and then the wires for the microswitches and leds.
good info, thanks
I had an idea to do a thing like this for a while but am pretty retarded so I don't trust myself to do it unless I'm just copying someone elses project. Cool shit.

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What is the cheapest way to get a recognized jeweler license? I live in Los Angeles
>jeweler license
>Los Angeles

be jewish
Jew would like to know that, wouldn't jew
oy vey goyim. throw a few shekels at your local rabbi. He'll give you a bris and you'll be ready.
>jeweler license
wat? murica

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