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/sci/ - Science & Math

 Name Options Subject Comment Verification 4chan Pass users can bypass this verification. [Learn More] [Login] File Please read the Rules and FAQ before posting.Use TeX with $tags for inline and [eqn] tags for block equations.Right-click equations to view the source.  10/04/16 New board for 4chan Pass users: /vip/ - Very Important Posts 06/20/16 New 4chan Banner Contest with a chance to win a 4chan Pass! See the contest page for details. 05/08/16 Janitor acceptance emails will be sent out over the coming weeks. Make sure to check your spam box! [Hide] [Show All] [Catalog] [Archive] File: sciguide.jpg (9 KB, 200x140) 9 KB JPG https://sites.google.com/site/scienceandmathguide/ >> Reminder: /sci/ is for discussing topics pertaining to science and mathematics, not for helping you with your homework or helping you figure out your career path. If you want advice regarding college/university or your career path, go to /adv/ - Advice. If you want help with your homework, go to /wsr/ - Worksafe Requests. File: koala65.jpg (70 KB, 600x928) 70 KB JPG Post your questions that don't deserve their own thread in here. Previous thread: >>8763893 Are some languages harder to lip read? If so which is hardest? 250 replies and 34 images omitted. Click here to view. >> >>8782128 if you have 2 balls, 1 of which is white and 1 of which is black, if you draw 2 balls with replacement it's a 50% chance to get a white ball on each draw => 1 ball expected, if you draw 2 balls without replacement then 50% of the balls are white => 1 ball expected >> >>8773374 when I'm playing loterry for example what's the difference between [math]49*48*47*46*45*44$
and
${{49}\choose{6}}$
the first result is much higher
I pick one randomly
and again
and again...
why are the results different? what's the difference?
[spoiler]Yes I'm pretty dumb[/spoiler]
>>
>>8782289
Factorial means the order of numbers matters. So 2 3 4 is not the same as 3 2 4

Binomic coefficient means the order doesnt. Ie 2 3 4 is the same like 4 3 2
>>
So my uni is going to have few lectures from Cedric Villaini about a topic I have no knowledge about. I'm in my first year, too. Is it even worth it going there? It feels selfish to go there even if I won't be able to understand anything.
>>
>>8782335
dude who gives a fuck if it is selfish. Don't miss that opportunity. Go to at least the first one and see how cool it is

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Why aren't you studying medicine? Literally no excuse, unless you're a brainlet that can't handle the workload.
>>
>>8782291
probably because every single doctor i have ever known has recommended going into something else
>>
I want to spend my time interacting with other smart people instead of dealing with brainlet patients and nurses all day every day for the rest of my career.
>>
>>8782325
Give me a prescription for Vicodin and we've got a deal.
>>
>>8782359
>I'm in pain
>>
>>8782369
Good luck trying that shit in the UK, you'll be lucky for the NHS to give you Ibuprofen.

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Because the subject seems to be (unfortunately) becoming more popular, let's have a comfy thread to discuss every aspect of it.

>how to debunk /fe/ arguments
>arguments to prove the roundness of the Earth
>psychoanalysis on what caused individuals to become flatfucks
>enjoy the entertainment that is /fe/ memes
>>
I'm more of a subscriber to cone theory desu.
>>
Has NASA had any more opportunities to take a photo of the whole Earth? There was the one in 1972 and then the one in 2015 iirc, but what about in that middle period? There has been Hayabusa in 2004 and LRO in 2012 (which I'm sorta confused about, I know it's in black and white but shouldn't it count as well? It is NASA's after all)

To take the photo

>the camera had to have been at least 40 000km distance from Earth
>the camera had to have been in a specific place between the Earth and the Sun
>there couldn't be a shadow of the moon

Is there someway to find out how many NASA missions filled all three of these requirements?
>>
Why do you even care if the earth is flat or round.
>>
>>8782366
>>
>>8782372
Having a happy life then dying.

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Would our behaviour drastically change if we were to enter another galaxy?
>>
>>8782026
Warp drive lets you go as fast as you want
>>
>>8782026
>What is science fiction.
>>
>>8782028
wasn't alcubierre drive max speed also upper bounded or some shit?
*hits bong*
>>
>>8782018
"At a distance of about 2.5 million light years, the Andromeda galaxy (also known as NGC 224 and M31) is the nearest galaxy to the Earth"

If FTL travel is possible it will be much shorter than 600 years. Because imo if you can create FTL drive you probably can also manipulate time. So time for passengers could be few days or seconds.

And sublight speeds i really doubt it is possible to go that far with single "jump". Also going above 80-90% of light is really questionable and hard, due to energy needed and radiation from al those gas particles ship would hit in space.

Also when we have that advanced technology we would also have true AI and probably be long time after going trans human, that means no water, flesh and carbon in our bodies. So it is obvious we would be different from what we are now.
>>
>>8782018
Why would behavior change depending on what galaxy you are in?

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Will space mining ever be a thing or is it strictly science fiction? Is there anything in space worth mining or collecting?
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>>8782161
So are you implying that the first company to mine asteroids would pull a De Beers, stockpile their precious metals and try to cash it like that?
>>
>>8782165
>>
>>8782167

So you dont. Ok thanks for the clarification.

Theres good books on the subject tho, most of this information is pretty basic and I am pretty sure it within the first 50 pages if you are not that patient to read a economics book.
>>
>>8781992

Space mining, in order to produce products meant for use in space, will happen LONG before any profitable means exists of mining and delivering resources to Earth.

That being said, even for-space space mining will help Earth in the sense that it will make developing space much cheaper to accomplish (fuel depots in space stocked by locally sourced propellants instead of shipments from Earth is a simple example of this). Of course, mineral resources like iron-nickel deposits from asteroids and rare metals would also be important for space colonies, along with more common materials like sulfurous minerals that can be used in bulk similarly to concrete on Earth. I would go so far as to say that colonizing any world would be impossible if we didn't perform any mining in situ at all, and that colonizing becomes easier and easier as we build up a colony's industrial base.

By colonizing space we would profit by transitioning into an interplanetary civilization as opposed to a single planet civilization. The benefits are similar to a single island or single continent civilization colonizing distant lands around the world. However, because of Earth's deep gravity well, we're essentially starting off much more isolated from nearly everything else than everything else is from each other. By colonizing a shallow gravity well (Mars, Moon) we can much more easily gain access to the rest of the solar system.
>>
>>8782010
ounce or troy oucne
baka use metric senpai
never use anything but metric

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Why is black science man not thought of as a real scientist here? Contrarianism?
>>
>>8782299
coz hes an arrogant asshole
>>
>>8782299
he's more of a media cheerleader than an actual scientist.

also he's overly political and his twitter gets pretty cringe
>>
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>>8782299
He blended the observer effect with Heisenburg's uncertainty principle on Joe Rogan's podcast because he had no idea how to differentiate them. He was asked about it and tried 3 times to change the subject because he knew he didnt know what he was talking about. And this man calls himself a "scientist".
>>
>>8782299
Because he simply isn't, he is a media personality with an interest in science.

In the same way Dara Ó Briain isn't a scientist, despite holding double honours degrees in mathematics and theoretical physics.
>>
>>8782299
he has not done literally anything useful in his field. his research is lame. if he wanted to be called a scientist, he would but with "shitty" in front of it.

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Is Physics a meme degree? Why is it often considered a top degree on here on par with engineering. Isn't it just a degree you study if you want to teach it, like history?
>>
>>8782314
lol, no it won't. that makes no sense. physics majors don't learn what engineering majors learn.
>>
>>8782319
look up the entry requirements
>>
>>8782338
just realized you were talking about a second rate country, nevermind
>>
>>8782347
why so mean?
>>
>>8782347
You're retarded.
>>8782314
Anyone that has a BS with practical engineering applications is a viable candidate to be in an engineering position, however an Engineering Masters is what will get you on tracjk to actually be an engineer, as a p.engr needs X amount of hours to be acquired. Most engr degrees will get you to be in a co-op program, basically guaranteeing you a job.

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Did you fall for the basic income meme? Do you actually think AI and automation will progress so far that we'll be able to let humans do whatever they want?

If humans have nothing to do and have no competition then they become mentally and physically weak. It's a shit societal structure that allows all problems to be solves like that. Humanity must struggle for eternity or it will regress
>>
>>8782349
You're saying a robot couldn't replace a Walmart greeter?
>>
>>8782355
Would you rather a robot waved at you or a human being?
>>
>>8782343
>>8782351
They'd tell you (at least most economists since the 30s would have) that the most important thing is to >stimulate DEMAND<

In the economy you're describing demand will completely collapse and it will be a global great depression like no one has ever seen
>>
>>8782357
I really don't care either way. I just ignore the greeters anyways.
>>
>>8782353
do you know how costly desalination is?

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What are the most retarded classes you had to take in your university. This is what you are going to study if you went to a shithole public uni in M'laysia

>Ethnic Relations
>Islamic and Asian Civilisations
>Malaysian Statehood

These classes are terribly boring and filled with obvious propaganda. Also they're compulsory to take.
>>
>>8780316
yeah because it's useless as shit.
>>
>>8771076
>women in music
I took it 6 years ago and I still complain about it
>>
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>>8782278
>women in music
KEK. Can you explain more about that?
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>>8782176
Right, which is why being forced to pay to take "Cultural Studies" is stupid.
>>
>>8782197
Humanities produced the scientific method. Do you subscribe to the thought that science can answer everything? How do you prove that scientifically? Even choosing to take that viewpoint is a philosophy onto itself.

You're literally like a little baby complaining about "how I won't need calculus in my daily life, ergo it's useless".

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>>

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0.999...=1
prove me wrong
protip: you can't
>>
>>8782075
>But it becomes simple if you say that the chance of the RNG producing .5 is an undefined infinitesimal.

I understand your problem. Mathematicians ran into the same. That's way they came up with measure theory. And as said before, this was not done "easy peasy lets do it this way". It was a delicate process to define all this things and concept in a sound and consistent way.

>>8782075
>None of these "proofs" prove anything because the Real set is defined to exclude the very subject that is being discussed.

No, they ("infinitesimals") are just handled in a well defined and consistent way (although not the only possible well defined and consistent way). And although it seems confusing, this way is the "intuitive" way if you think about it carefully. Imagine you are god and you actually can draw a "Point", a "Line" etc. in the mathematical sense. Draw a Line with length 1cm and divide it into 3 parts of equal length. Now measure the length of such a part. You will get 0.33 cm and something. Then as a god, you zoom in and see, it is 0.333 cm and something and you repeat this process and (because you are a god you can "count to infinity") you get 0.33333....cm. So divide 1 by 3 (i.e. 1/3) is equal to 0.333... .There can no (in this daily-life-math-model) thing be in between 1/3 and 0.333..., because the third part of you 1cm line has a beginning point and an ending point, hence it's length can be described with one single value.
>>
>>8782131
>Imagine you are god and you actually can draw a "Point", a "Line" etc. in the mathematical sense. Draw a Line with length 1cm and divide it into 3 parts of equal length.

Should I draw the line [0,1] or [0,1)? I think we are going around in circles now.
>>
>>8781633
>0.00000000000000...(infinite number of zeroes)...1

0.00000000000000...(infinite number of zeroes)...01
That's less right? But you could just call that
0.00000000000000...(infinite number of zeroes plus another zero)...1
But infinity plus one is still infinity, so really nothing has changed, so is it equal or lesser?
>>
>>8782160
Good answer :) . But for our purpose, it doesn't matter. For now and in this example, don't think in intervals, just think of a 1 cm long "Line".

Lets try it another way: You insist that 0.9999.... + "infinitely small number" = 1. Lets call this "infinitely small number" $\mu$. You can do this and you end up with non-standard analysis and a set which is not $\mathbb{R}$, but something like the Hyperreals or the Surreals (to be honsest, I'm not an expert in non-standard analysis). But now, you run in a bunch of other problems, for example:
Is $\mu = -\mu$?
Is $f(x) = x+\mu$ continuous at 0?
What is $\sum_{i=0}^{\infty}{\mu}$?
etc.
As said, it can be done, but it is delicate and non-trivial and much more non-intuitive as it seems on first sight and definitely less intuitive then the "equivalence class based on euclidean metric" - concept.
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>>8774587
>9x=9
wrong right there
9x = 8.999...

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What is the best language and writing system?

How could you design a language that is the most optimal?
How could you make the language the easiest to speak and pronounce? How could you make the language the most consistent and intuitive?

How could you design a writing system that is the most optimal?
How many characters would you have? How could you make the characters the easiest and fastest to write?

I think if we ever want to be a truly advanced society, these are questions we need to answer. We also need to switch to the metric system.
>>
Japanese
>>
>>8779758
>has baked in genderism to cause social problems
Huh? Genders in English are practically nonexistent. I don't quite get what you're trying to say. As just one example, in Russian EVERY part of speech, except adverb, has gender.
>>
bup
>>
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>>8780668
Contrived example:

There was a dude who got a hand transplant.
>He had Sepsis and had to have a hand, a foot, and
>fingers/toes removed.
>>Sepsis may happen for many reasons ......
>The odds of him surviving were really low.
>>Doctors told him he was probably going to die and to
>>call everyone he loved. They told his wife that he had
>>at best a 10% chance of survival. His doctor later said
>>that in all her years as a doctor that dude was the
>>sickest person to ever walk out alive.
>They induced a coma that lasted over two weeks and he
>had all sorts of crazy hallucinations that changed his
>outlook on life.
>>His first hallucination went on for "days".
>>>In it he was tied to a bench and demons would bring
>>>buckets of snakes that would bite him every day. They
>>>would always talk about him as if he wasn't there.

>>
>>8782320

The idea here is that if you need to temporarily jump to another topic for some reason (perhaps giving some background info or elaborating on something) then you may do so by indenting. The fact that you've indented serves as a reminder that this isn't the main topic you're interested in discussing and keeps you from losing track of the conversation. Moreover, it also allows a reader to choose whether or not to follow into an indentation (effectively performing something equivalent to 'code folding'). Note that as a side effect one may choose to read only the 'top level' sentences and thereby acquire a brief summary, and since the summary is woven into the structure of the main text then it also functions as a sort of table of contents!

In the future we will continue to be more and more inundated with information and being able to navigate, keep track, search through, etc... will become more and more necessary to future readers. Future writers will also need to find ways to deal with more and more complicated topics that require many large tangential explanations. A future language should provide for them the means to communicate such concepts clearly, otherwise people simply won't read them.

On the spoken language side of things, I hope that this approach to reading and writing should change the way people conceptualize things and allow them to communicate better as a whole (being able to keep track of conversations and breaking down complicated concepts into basic components).

On a personal note, I know a guy who I cannot have a mathematical conversation with without him going off on sequence of long tangents about some technical details I am not interested in. The dude rarely makes a complete point and the topic jumps so many times that I honestly can't justify the time investment. A future language should not allow for this.

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Dixiefag here. How do we make the South less retarded? The few smart ones are surrounded by hyper-religious nutjobs who deny a lot of science for literally no reason, even in the cities. Our culture seems to be inherently broken, and I'm at a loss on how to fix it.
>>
>>8779946
>number of counties per state that are in the top 100 nationwide
this metric is absolute trash
also what kind of brainlet can't tell the difference between NC and VA?
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>>8779240
>it's called cognitive dissonance

Look mommy, I'm being condescending! Aren't I smart!
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>>8781966
>condescending!

Truth seems like that to you often, doesn't it.
>>
>>8775262
Get rid of racists, ignorance is spread in their minds like a disease. It is the enemy of knowlege.
>>
>>8781968
Not him but the guy clearly didn't know what he was talking about since he just ended up going "nah, I don't like ur argument I agree with Wise! I don't have a rebuttal just watch the video, that's my argument."

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Tell us some hilarious lab experiences!

>molecular biology lab
>paired with a pre-vet girl
>she was given a micropipette
>"How do I know how much water this will hold?"
>later she makes the classic mistake of not balancing the centrifuge
>destruction
>still got good grade because of me

>physiology lab
>chronaxie and rheobase of human radial nerve
>I give my friend nice 120 V pulses with 10 Hz frequency
>watch him twitch and suffer
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>>8773978
>what is comfirmation bias
>>
>>8775626
That's not that bad, I was fucking with my car stereo and held a couple Of wires together

> wondered where that green light was coming from
> what's this burning smell?

Melted fingers together
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>>8782186
>green light
GATSBY IS GREEDY GREEN SYMBOLIZES GREED CAUSE THEY SOUND SIMILAR OR SOMETHING
>Of
Ok you get a B- for this paper even though you understand everything about the novel and several things I don't
>>
>>8782207