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hey guys never come to this board before i wont tell you where i spend my time, but il give you a hint. I really hate jews and literally worship the ground Trump floats over.
Anyways my little cousin told me dinosaurs had feathers, is this true? Did dinosaurs have feathers, figured I would come ask the experts, and if so do you have any proof, like have we found any in fossils or amber.
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>>2416010
There was even an ancient Jurassic gliding dinosaur called yi-qi with batlike skin membrane wings. Despite not using feathers for flight, it still showed blatant signs of being feathered.
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>>2416053
>the intended idea was conveyed, you're just being nit picky
no, I'm checking if you're formally trained or just well read.

the rostro-caudal language is obscure but not extinct. A formally trained anatomist isn't going to speak of nerves exiting the endocast though. The cast of the nerve is part of the endocast.
>You didn't answer about the jugular insertion. Enlighten me.
I did answer. The lateral face of the jugal doesn't generally display any ruggosity of the periosteum that would indicate a muscle attachment despite a number of facial muscles having attached there. This is typical of the dermatocranium- the facial muscles don't generally leave visible scars.

Most cranial ruggosities in dinosaurs are associated with synovium or external ornamentation. Muscle scars are found, but not generally on the external dermatocranium.
>>
Two words:
Phylogenetical bracketing
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>>2416074
bracketing is inconclusive.
Using extant taxa we find crocodilians (diverged b4 dinosaurs) lack feathers while birds (diverged after dinosaurs) have them. This does nothing to prove that dinosaurs had feathers.

Using a combination of extinct and extant taxa we find that extant dinosaurs (birds) have feathers, but there is no evidence that any ancestor of dinosaurs did. This indicates that feathers evolved after dinosaurs, meaning not all had them.

using extinct taxa things get even more confusing with flight feathers only found in avialans, pennate feathers are only found in maniraptorans, and downy feathers are inferred in maniraptorans and known in an unrelated ornithischian. Then there's a number of other spines and filaments in other taxa that may or may not be related to feathers.

So bracketing shows the same thing the fossils do- a tiny branch of dinosaurs had feathers, most did not.
>>
Why do you keep baiting this thread OP?
Of course dinosaurs had feathers, not all but there were.

You just made this to start a an argument about T.Rex having feathers

I seen this dog in the street on a cage.. Someone abandoned him.
>>
>>
Mutt.
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>>2416058
Yeah, a dog for a gay guy or a woman.
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>>2416058
Looks like a cross between something and Faggot Dog

This is my jar of bedbugs I've picked off my bed the past year. I don't want to tell my mom I have bedbugs because:
1)she will get pissed at me
2)I don't want an exterminator to kill them
3)I'm lazy and don't want to have to move/clean everything for an exterminator.
I am going to dump the jar somewhere secluded soon because I'm worried they might be cannibalizing each other. How likely does /an/ think that would be?
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1.Release them into the wild
2.keep them but use holy water and garlic to keep them at bay
3.find a different pet i would prefer leaches because they are therapeutic
4. Be sure to find out living conditions and properly teach them mot to suck blood
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>>2409419
How fucked in the head are you?
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>>2410528
You have an IQ lower than 50 don't you? You are making me rage at how fucking stupid you are.
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>>2411409
there's a difference?
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>>2409349
This kind of makes sense. A parasite protecting other parasites

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>>2415212
Siege has been nerfed to hell and back after people complained about his high defenses. Gecko Pecko is currently the new meta.
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Anyone who picks Cat or Cock are fucking casuals


Monky Bizness is the best character in the hands of skilled players
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>>2406558
siege is the only clever one
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>>2406558
Siege more of a defense player myself
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>>2406968
Battle Toads

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Is /an/ Vegan?
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>>2410789
Am Orthodox. So pretty close.
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Reminder being vegan because you don't like animal suffering is idiotic and unrealistic. Nobody will stop buying animal products except your small group.

Support humane farming practices with your wallet instead
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>>2411117
most people in this asinine argument on both sides are parroting what they're told; and extremely biased to their habits because they inherited them.
The western diet does have too much emphasis on meat though. Don't need it at all to live, its just that cooked food especially meat is a very very easy source of dense calories.
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All "moral" vegans are virtue signaling unless they are actively contacting their legislators about animal welfare/rights or breaking into factory farms to break the equipment.
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>>2410789
>Is /an/ Vegan?
I am 95% vegan
but I eat chocolate products sometimes.
and if I ever go to some event which likely doesn't have vegan options I'll just eat the vegetarian one.

In my daily life though yeah im vegan

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How's everyone doing?
I just got an internship at a lab studying Leafcutter ants, and I am the mycologist they brought on to look at the fungus side of things. They think that the only relevant aspect of the fungus is its caloric value, but little do they know...

I also harvested this cluster of Oyster mushrooms off of >>2403969 . Looking good, I am surprised I fruited these indoors with the high temp/low humidity conditions in my area.
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>>2415794

Congrats on the internship! Do ants cultivate fungi like termites do? I wasn't aware. Also, I found a log in the woods with Ganoderma tsugae. how long does it usually take to get a mature specimen after sprouting?
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>>2415794
Any advice for an uninitiated to grow some standard edibles in his house? Where to start, links, anything is appreciated.
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>>2415794
Beautiful harvest. Bet those are gonna be tasty. Here's the end results of my chanterelle harvest from last week.
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>>2415848
Thanks!
Yeah, there is a whole group the "Attine ants" that cultivate different fungi, including some yeasts. The most complex form is that practiced by Atta species, as such we are studying Atta cephalotes. They have developed to a point where neither the fungi or the ant can live without the other.

The growth is dependent on local climate conditions. In optimum conditions (from indoor growing experience), they often take about a month to reach a pickable size. It can go up to two though, they are slow fruiters.

>>2415870
The learning curve is pretty simple. You can probably find "Mycelium Running", "Growing Gourmet and Medicinal Mushrooms" by Paul Stamets, or some of Tradd Cotters books online for cheap.
There are a number of points you could jump in. It is possible to get started growing mushrooms outdoors for as small an investment as 25$, or with a ~50$ investment you could get a pressure cooker, mini greenhouse, jars/bags, and substrate. With that setup you could potentially feed your friends and family, each indoor crop only takes around a month to reach harvest start-to-finish.

Good species to start with are Shiitake, Oysters (Pleurotus species), Stropharia rugoso-annulata (Wine-Caps), or Enoki (Flammulina velutipes). All function well at a range of temperatures and are forgiving with mistakes.
I'd recommend joining the group "Mushroom Growing" on Facebook, it is a wonderful resource for random questions and recommendations for techniques. I would actually recommend those groups for anyone interested in mushroom growing, it is a great resource.
Pic is not mine.

>>2415879

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Why are moths so slow/easy to kill whereas to swat a bluebottle or housefly you have to build up all of your inner chi and strike faster than the speed of sound
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Me?
I prefer chopsticks
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>>2413976
the ones that grew up in the food yes.
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>>2413976
>you're not suppose to kill moths you monster

Gypsy Moths, Anon, Gypsy Moths. Kill them at all costs if you live in the United States.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lymantria_dispar_dispar

Other moths are awesome.
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>>2413973
That's literally what makes flies flies. The defining feature of flies (diptera=2 wings) is that two of their wings evolved into these lil nubs called halteres which they pivot as a counterweight to change direction mid flight. Its a beautifully simple adaptation that works ridiculously well
>>
Whenever I make a genocide of flies with my electric racket, they all get cleaned out by ants

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"Seriously, fuck this thing."

The Bobbit Worm is known for being up to 10 feet long and it's horrible, painful bites are known to cause permanent nerve damage. This is less of a problem for its prey though, as they are dragged underground to be eaten alive.
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>>2409394
Thats fucken terrifying
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>>2411893
Sat/an/
Duh.
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>>2414121
THE FUCK IS THAT
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>>2413007
Aye but no recordings of the projectiles ... mfw
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>>2414121
But what is it ?

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Its summer!

Post your finds and catches.
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>>2414469
why no killy? if it's indoors, absolutely killy
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>>2414420

>mamba
>with keeled scales

>>2415352

Cute.

One of these days I want to visit the desert states. I want to see real roadrunners
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>>2415385
If it's indoors then movey.
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>>2413917
Little brown skink
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>>2415532
fuckey a spidey that could killy my family

Does /an/ approve of this meme?
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>>2414081
Ancient hokuto shinken dog euthanization pose
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>dog is overprotective of food to the point of biting
'I know just the thing to stop that behaviour!'
>attacks dog causing pain and stress while it is eating

Who in their right mind would think this was a good idea?
>>
>>2414529
Wetbacks obviously
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>>2414081
Huh... he had to use THAT
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>>2414480
Underrated post

Separation anxiety forces dogs to find something to break to relieve a fit of boredom and longing that boarders on a psychotic episode. It doesn't know that something like paper is valuable(homework) and animals tend to regard new objects as expendable as older objects tend to last. If anything, dogs aren't spiteful, they just rely erroneously on instincts to determine what is least important to you yet accessible. Its an oxytocin addiction. Giving them stimulation when away and giving them a clear option that not cuddling or touching is not a time out will help immensely. This deters them from always seeking you as a oxytocin high but as a being they come to respect and look to for authority. There is a strong competition between parents which spoil their children and those who simply want to treat their child as their own person. Its fair to say we and animals are products of both nature and nurture. While we are reminded constantly of the negative consequences of neglect, we often as a society ignore the predominantly psychological negative consequences of overcomfort. For humans who can convey context, laziness and contentment are the most symptomatic. But for dogs, who can't be told to count backwards from 10 to release stress or reassured you will always be back, overcomfort will cause them to look at you in 2 ways. First as a food giver, and secondly a source of comfort where they can "recharge". So you have to ask, does my dog still love me for me with that doggy unconditional love, or is it just using up its and your lives doing a routine? And have I literally become like a mailman who shows up to do a job everyday to play and play nurse? As Siddhartha after being a starving hermit heard a fisherman say iirc, "Too loose and the knot will break, to tight and it will not play." Lifeforms struggle but thrive stronger for it to find balance. Emotional attachment is fine but EVERYTHING should be made aware of its right to personal space.
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take your meds anon
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Stupid pic, the dog is not stressed, it's submissive, getting tired of people thinking that a certain behavior means just one thing , ie tail wagging means happy, no its not you lil shits.
Also tldr
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>>2416075
>not stressed, it's submissive
Yes, that dog is likely stressed (though a still shot picture will always be less accurate for judgment than a video, for instance.) This dog doesn't look happy and wiggly, he looks stiff and uncomfortable.

Showing submission/calming signals while being physically loomed over is a result of stress, anon. They're called appeasement gestures for a reason. Dog wants you to chill out.

>ie tail wagging means happy, no its not you lil shits
Correct, it just means arousal. Depending on context and other body language signals, it could mean excitement or it could mean stress, aggression, etc. Context is important.

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I posted this on /adv/ wondering why nobody answered lol

Does anyone have experience with aggressive dogs?

I'm taking care of a friend dog while he moves out of country.

For some fucking reason the dog wants to attack every single dog he sees no matter if it's a stillborn or a female puppy.

I've had him for 2 weeks already and I'm losing patience, dog age is around 2 years. I think it's a mutt but I could be wrong(breed matters right?).
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>>2415482
Wouldn't they put the dog down though?

Only case where doggo hasn't been aggressive is when I took him to the veterinary, there were other dogs there but he didn't even react as usual.

There's also the previous neighbor dog which he seems to be fine around.
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>>2415487
No, they'd put it up for adoption with a "hates other dogs" note, or try to train it out of him.
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>>2415480
Dog aggression/reactivity isn't uncommon. I have some experience with it myself. What exactly are you asking for here?

If you're just taking care of the dog for a friend temporarily, just try to keep him away from other dogs. You'd want to keep him under threshold (far enough away from other dogs that he's not freaking out or reacting) anyways. Forcing him into situations where he goes over threshold will only make it worse.

If you had a mind to train him out of it, you'd want to start counter-conditioning exercises with him, keeping him under threshold and reinforcing calm behavior, slowly decreasing distance from other dogs as he learns that seeing other dogs isn't a bad thing. He may never LIKE other dogs and that's OK, but he can be trained to be calm and ignore them when he sees them.
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>>2415498
I'll still have it around for a month or so, I really wanna exhaust all my options before giving up on him.

In the past few days he hasn't paid as much attention as before to other dogs so I think he has progressed a bit but the issue still persists.

I haven't considered complete avoidance because sometimes other dogs try to approach him.
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>>2415506
>sometimes other dogs try to approach him
While he is in your care, you need to be proactive and try to prevent other dogs from approaching him. Stay away from areas with unleashed dogs, and ask other dog owners/walkers to give you and your dog space. Of course, you can't always control how other people/dogs will interact with yours, so shit sometimes happens. But just try to be as proactive as possible so he doesn't run into situations he feels uncomfortable enough in that he has to lash out and react.

And again, it's not just avoiding triggering his reactivity, it's creating positive associations while he's under threshold. Him being over threshold hurts your progress so you want to avoid that as much as you can.

How well do rough collies fare in hotter climates? Is it a no go, or can they actually do okay? There's a high chance I'm going to be living in southern California for my work.

Also, dog general. Post dogs.
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>>2415967
>the difference between a puppy being playful with other puppies or being aggressive?

Not respecting signs of submission from the other dog.

When that happens, you need to step in and do what its bitch should have taught it to do, and make it stop fucking with the other dog.
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Hey /an/, what kind of dog is this?
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>>2415476
Holy shit, did you teach that dog to install solar panels? G'damn!
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>when your pupper is having some bad skin issues

There's a bald patch near his tail and he's been scratching like crazy. He has an appointment for the 1st. He's not as active as he was. It's just depressing to watch. I want him back
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>>2415997
Heh, those are my brother's...he has a strange obsession with solar panels. I think it's pretty neat tho

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The Plant General - Back To Normal Edition

Welcome to /plant/, the magical green place on this blue board.

/Plant/ is for the discussion of plants (obviously). Horticulturists, hobbyists and botanists welcome! Questions about plants? Want to show off your two inch dick-I mean plant? Maybe you want to start growing something new and exciting? Well come on over to /plant/!

ITT: continued adventures of the mysterious bird plant, sexy as fuck petunias and the usual glorious carnivorous stuff. Ignore our new deranged friend.

Introducing a new basic caresheet with every thread: Heliamphora edition:
>free-draining media, feel free to OD on live Sphagnum
>strong light - shits love getting a nice red tan
>high humidity (and some airflow)
>As with most montane tropicals, warm temperatures with a notable dip at night is necessary

For our carnivorous plant newbies:

Comment too long. Click here to view the full text.
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>>2415878
Thanks man, but I think the leaves of this one are too different for it to be a match.
>>2415884
Lol I did actually attempt some googling, I'm not entirely inept. Digitalis includes multiple species and I just didn't feel sure any were totally right? The flowers all seem to be a bit shorter and wider, and I have no idea if the difference is within normal for those species or if it means it's something else, which is why I hoped someone here knew. But hey thank you for trying, appreciate it!
>>
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>>2415923
Excellent! Thanks a ton. I'll go grab another picture for ya. It opened up.
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>>2415930
Beautiful! You're never going to get rid of them, by the way. It's virtually impossible, as it's already distributed thousands upon thousands of spores into the soil. But they're colorful and don't damage plants, so why would you want to?

Also, they're toxic if eaten, so keep any pets or children away from them.
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>>2415941
That's wonderful. I like it too much to get rid of it if it's unnecessary. It's pretty. I like the color and the texture. My dog is picky and apprehensive about eating weird things and my kids are half grown, so we're okay. I hope we get a handful each time it rains. That schefflera was given to us when my grandmother died about 7 years ago. She'd likely think that those mushrooms are pretty and tell the kids not to tear them out or damage them. I appreciate you taking time to reply.
>>
What are some good fat and edgy plants? I've realized that I feel more affection for my thicc bitches. I have Dorstenia lavrani, Beaucarnea recurvata, and Cyphostemma juttae. I think I'd like to keep some carrion flower succulents like Edithcolea grandis. Maybe something in Aizoaceae. What else is there?

I also got some Sequoia seeds recently that I'll be stratifying when I find a coffee filter.

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How do we stop breeders like this?

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Goss0a0oyLs
>>
I'm addicted to this guy's videos. He's so aesthetically pleasing and I love seeing his dick bulge out of his shorts. Thanks op
>>
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>SLAMMED threads
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>>2414225
But he's not 100% wrong. The German Shepherd is known for its health problems because of early inbreeding.
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>>2414225
>*southern voice*:
> "mo money bred to his daughter"



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